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Laser diodes are semiconductor devices which convert an injected electrical power into an output of concentrated light at a specific wavelength, coherence and phase. Their fundamental structure is based on a doped p-n semiconductor junction. The specific recipe of semiconductor materials that is used, such as gallium and arsenide, is chosen based on its ability to produce a specific laser wavelength. When DC current is applied to the p-n semiconductor junction, holes are injected from the "p" doped portion of the semiconductor material and electrons are injected from the "n" doped portion. The recombination of an electron with a hole is essentially an electron from a higher energy level dropping to a lower level. The result of this energy change is the generation and emission of a photon. When specific semiconductor and optical design constraints are employed, this photon creation process can be controlled to yield a stimulated emission of concentrated laser light of the same wavelength: A technical introduction to laser diodes and basic design principles »